Members of the Figwort Family are herbs or shrubs with 5 united sepals and 5 petals with a tubular throat, which expands into 2 lips, the upper lips with 2 lobes and the lower lip with 3. The stamens, 5, 4,or 2, are often in pairs, 1 shorter. The fruit is a dry capsule.
This is a large family familiar in gardens (Snapdragon, Foxglove) and generously represented wild in California. (Dale 179).
As traditionally known, the Family Scrophulariaceae consists of approximately 275 genera and over 5,000 species worldwide. In recent years DNA sequences of various genes has provided a greater knowledge of the evolutionary relationships than the anatomy and morphology on which traditional relationships have been based. As a result of the DNA testing, the family Scrophulariaceae will be divided into at least seven groups that will bear the rank of family. These will vary in size and some will be quite geographic in focus. (Olmstead, Richard G. “Whatever Happened to the Scrophulariaceae?” FREMONTIA, A Journal of the California Native Plant Society Vol. 30. No 2. April 2002 p.13-22.
None of the Scrophulariaceae in upper Newport Bay will remain in the family; all will be moved to Plantaginaceae, Orobanchaceae, or Phrymaceae. Castilleja and Cordylanthus will be in family Orobanchaceae; Antirrhinum, Linaria, Penstemon and Veronica will be in family Plantaginaceae and Mimulus will be in family Phrymaceae. No changes will be made in my records at this time. (Robert’s 2008 Checklist 161, 165, 168).